K.G.F: Chapter 2

K.G.F. 2

K.G.F: Chapter 2 is a 2022 Indian Kannada-language period action film written and directed by Prashanth Neel, and produced by Vijay Kiragandur under the banner Hombale Films.

The second instalment in a two-part series, it serves as a sequel to the 2018 film K.G.F: Chapter 1. The film stars Yash, Sanjay Dutt, Raveena Tandon, Srinidhi Shetty and Prakash Raj.

It follows the assassin Rocky, who after establishing himself as the kingpin of the Kolar Gold Fields, must retain his supremacy over adversaries and government officials, while also coming to terms with his past.

Produced on a budget of ₹100 crore (US$13 million), K.G.F: Chapter 2 is the most expensive Kannada film ever made.

Filming resumed five months later and was completed in December 2020. Locations included Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mysore and Kolar.

K.G.F: Chapter 2 was theatrically released in India on 14 April 2022 in Kannada, along with dubbed versions in Hindi, Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam languages.

It is also the first Kannada film to release in IMAX.

Besides recording the second highest-opening day in India, the film set domestic opening day records in Kannada, Hindi and Malayalam, and surpassed the lifetime gross of its predecessor in two days to become the highest-grossing Kannada film.

With earnings of ₹1,204 crore (US$160 million) globally, K.G.F: Chapter 2 is the third highest-grossing Indian film of all time, and also the second highest-grossing film in India. A sequel is in development.


After detailing the events in K.G.F: Chapter 1, Anand Ingalagi suffers a stroke and his son, Vijayendra, takes over to narrate the rest of the story.

Rocky kills heir apparent Virat and takes over the Kolar Gold Fields (K.G.F), keeping Reena hostage to ensure the cooperation of Guru Pandian, Andrews and Rajendra Desai, and kills Kamal when he protests.

He issues orders to start work in eight hidden mines.

Meanwhile, Adheera resurfaces and kills all guards at an outpost. In a ruse to bring Rocky to Adheera, Andrews kills Desai to lure Reena outside K.G.F, and John captures Reena.

Adheera shoots Rocky but spares his life, while his men roadblock all gold exports from K.G.F. Meanwhile, Shetty ties up with other subordinates of Andrews across India’s western coast and exterminates Rocky’s allies with Inayat Khalil’s newfound support, but Rocky’s aides kill Shetty’s associates and recapture the coast.

A recuperated Rocky, along with Reena, visits Dubai to deal in gold with Khalil, and also buys Kalashnikovs from him. Rocky and his gang gravely wound Adheera and kill his henchmen with their newly acquired weapons.

Exasperated with K.G.F, some central ministers had planned a no-confidence motion against the DYSS-supported government to bring Ramika Sen in power, but Rocky’s henchmen threaten other ministers against the vote and the motion fails. Rocky also kills Shetty, gaining control over Bombay.

Pandian warns Rocky of Sen’s rising stature, but he disregards him. Three years later in 1981, she wins the Indian general elections and becomes Prime Minister.

After CBI officer Kanneganti Raghavan briefs her about the situation in K.G.F, she issues orders to close all state borders and authorises Raghavan to raid Rocky’s warehouses.

A young Ingalagi is caught spying by Rocky’s henchmen, but Rocky is impressed by his integrity. The CBI find nothing in their raids save for a 400 gram-gold bar. Rocky retrieves it from a police station and singlehandedly brings the place down with a DShK. Rocky halts all exports from K.G.F, which strains relations with Khalil, but continues the mining. His aides trace his biological father, a drunkard who abandoned his family, and pays the unaware man to take care of his mother’s newly shifted grave. Reena confesses her feelings to Rocky and they get married. Rocky meets with Sen and hands her a file exposing his involvement in money laundering, but she cannot consider it as almost all her party members are complicit in the corruption. Still furious after his defeat, Adheera makes his way to K.G.F through a secret passage with Andrews, Daya and John, supported by Khalil’s armada.

Just as Reena reveals her pregnancy to Rocky, Adheera fatally snipes her. In the ensuing clash, Rocky’s army kill Andrews and Daya, while Rocky kills John and chokes Adheera to death. Rocky and his henchmen disrupt Sen’s speech at the Parliament and kill Pandian. Pandian had staged the attack on Garuda for which Adheera was framed, and informed Adheera of Garuda’s attack priorly. He was also the one who showed Adheera the secret passage, goaded Andrews into hiring Rocky, staged the no-confidence motion drama in Delhi, and persuaded Shetty to join forces with Khalil just to gain Rocky’s trust. Sen issues a death warrant against Rocky and enforces the Indian Army. Rocky evacuates K.G.F and leaves on a ship with his cache of gold. Before leaving, Rocky forms a new colony for all K.G.F workers. He signals the Navy to his location, but refuses to surrender. Sen issues orders to bomb K.G.F and Rocky’s ship, and he drowns in the ocean along with the gold, which stays lost till date. A young Ingalagi decides to write a book on Rocky.

In mid-credits scene, three months post Rocky’s death, a CIA official hands over a file listing Rocky’s crimes in United States and 16 other nations between 1978-1981 to Sen. In the present, the peon of the television news channel finds the final draft of K.G.F: Chapter 3.

The film’s post-credits scene showcased the final draft of K.G.F: Chapter 3, hinting at a sequel. In April 2022, Neel said: “If people love K.G.F: Chapter 2, we could think of continuing the franchise.” The same month, executive producer Karthik Gowda confirmed that a sequel was in development and pre-production had begun.In an interview with Variety, Yash stated that he and Neel had conceptualised some scenes for the sequel.

In May 2022, producer Vijay Kiragandur stated they were planning to begin the sequel’s production after October 2022, aiming for a 2024 release. “Going forward, we are going to create a Marvel kind of universe. We want to bring different characters from different movies and create something like Doctor Strange,” Kiragandur added.

K.G.F. 2

Directed by: Prashanth Neel
Written by: Prashanth Neel
Produced by: Vijay Kiragandur
Sanjay Dutt
Raveena Tandon
Srinidhi Shetty
Prakash Raj
Cinematography: Bhuvan Gowda
Edited by: Ujwal Kulkarni
Music by: Ravi Basrur
Production company:
Hombale Films
Distributed by: Hombale Films through
KRG Studios and Jayanna Films
Excel Entertainment and AA Films
Varahi Chalana Chitram
Dream Warrior Pictures
Prithviraj Productions (Malayalam)
Release date :
14 April 2022
Running time: 168 minutes
Country: India
Language: Kannada
Budget: ₹100 crore
Box office: est.₹1,204 crore

Edge of the World (2021)

Edge of the World

Edge of the World is an adventure drama film directed by Michael Haussman and starring Jonathan Rhys Meyers as the British soldier and adventurer James Brooke (1803–1868), the first White Rajah of Sarawak.

The film also features Atiqah Hasiholan, Dominic Monaghan, Hannah New, and Josie Ho. The script was written by Rob Allyn, who also produced the film.Edge of the World is a co-production between Malaysia, China, the US and the UK.

The film is based on the true story of the Rajah of Sarawak, James Brooke, who has been suggested as one of the inspirations for the Rudyard Kipling story The Man Who Would Be King, and Joseph Conrad’s novel Lord Jim.

Brooke was a former soldier in the Bengal Army who sailed to Borneo which was still under the control of Bruneian Sultanate in 1839, where he helped the Sultan of Brunei’s governor (Pengiran Indera Mahkota, title for the governor) put down a local rebellion and took over as governor of what became the Raj of Sarawak as his own private kingdom.

He was knighted by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom prior to being appointed Governor of the new Crown Colony of Labuan. Brooke’s dynasty lasted three generations and spanned a century.

Jonathan Rhys Meyers as Sir James Brooke
Atiqah Hasiholan as Princess Fatimah (Pengiran Anak Puteri Fatimah, the granddaughter of the 21st Sultan of Brunei)
Dominic Monaghan as Colonel Arthur Crookshank
Josie Ho as Madame Lim
Hannah New as Elizabeth Crookshank
Ralph Ineson as Sir Edward Beech
Bront Palarae as Pengiran Indera Mahkota (Pengiran Mohammad Salleh ibnu Pengiran Sharifuddin)
Samo Rafael as Pengiran Badaruddin (historically, this character may refer to Pengiran Muda Hashim or Raja Muda Hashim, the Bruneian governor of Sarawak)
Otto Farrant as Charles Brooke, the nephew of James Brooke, also known as Charlie
Shaheizy Sam as Subu
Wan Hanafi Su as Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II, the 23rd Sultan of Brunei.
Peter John as Orang Kaya (Traditional Bruneian peerage title)
Kahar Jini as Datu Patinggi Ali (Abang Ali bin Abang Amir)
Yusuf Mahardika as Tujang, from Iban tribe, James Brooke personal bodyguard

Is the edge of the world a true story?

The film is based on the true story of the Rajah of Sarawak, James Brooke, who has been suggested as one of the inspirations for the Rudyard Kipling story The Man Who Would Be King, and Joseph Conrad’s novel Lord Jim.

What is the film edge of the world about?
In 1840s Borneo, Sir James Brooke defies the British Empire to rule a jungle kingdom and embarks on a crusade to end piracy, slavery, and head-hunting.

Where was the film Edge of the World filmed?

Made with the support of Sarawak Tourism Board, with The Brooke Heritage Trust as the film’s technical advisory, ‘Edge of the World’ was filmed entirely in Sarawak’s beautiful rainforest, amidst jungles, rivers, national parks, authentic longhouses, and historic towns of Sarawak.

Oskar Schindler

Oskar Schindler, after 1945.

Oskar Schindler
German industrialist

Oskar Schindler was a German industrialist and a member of the Nazi Party who is credited with saving the lives of 1,200 Jews during the Holocaust by employing them in his enamelware and ammunitions factories in occupied Poland and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.

Born: April 28, 1908, Svitavy, Czechia
Died: October 9, 1974, Hildesheim, Germany
Height: 1.93 m
Place of burial: Mount Zion Roman Catholic Franciscan Cemetery
Spouse: Emilie Schindler (m. 1928–1974)
Children: Emily Schlegel, Oskar Jr Schlegel
Movies: Schindler: The Documentary

Oskar Schindler (28 April 1908 – 9 October 1974) was a German industrialist and a member of the Nazi Party who is credited with saving the lives of 1,200 Jews during the Holocaust by employing them in his enamelware and ammunitions factories in occupied Poland and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. He is the subject of the 1982 novel Schindler’s Ark and its 1993 film adaptation, Schindler’s List, which reflected his life as an opportunist initially motivated by profit, who came to show extraordinary initiative, tenacity, courage, and dedication to save the lives of his Jewish employees.

Oskar Schindler (second from the right) poses with a group of Jews he rescued during the Holocaust. The picture was taken in 1946, one year after the war ended.

The Schindlerjuden, literally translated from German as “Schindler Jews”, were a group of roughly 1,200 Jews who were saved by Oskar Schindler during the Holocaust.

They survived the years of the Nazi regime primarily through the intervention of Schindler, who found them protected status as industrial workers at his enamelware factory in Kraków and, after 1944, in an armaments factory in occupied Czechoslovakia.

There, they avoided being sent to death camps and survived the war. Schindler expended his personal fortune as an industrialist to save the Schindlerjuden.

Their story has been depicted in the book Schindler’s Ark, by Thomas Keneally, and Steven Spielberg’s film adaptation of the novel, Schindler’s List.

Poldek Pfefferberg, one of the survivors, persuaded Thomas Keneally to write the novel and Steven Spielberg to produce the film.

In 2012, there were estimated to be over 8,500 descendants of Schindlerjuden living across the United States, Israel, and other countries.

Oskar Schindler at a reunion in Munich, Germany in 1946 with Hella Kornhauser and other Schindlerjuden.

Was Oskar Schindler good person?
Oskar Schindler was a great man who saved the lives of more than 1,000 Jews during the Holocaust. The imperfections in his character and the nuances in the historical record only make his story more remarkable.

Is Schindler’s List True story?
Keneally’s best-known work, Schindler’s Ark (1982; also published as Schindler’s List; film 1993), tells the true story of Oskar Schindler, a German industrialist who saved more than 1,300 Jews from the Nazis.

What happened to Oskar Schindler after the war ended?
After World War II, Schindler and his wife Emilie settled in Regensburg, Germany, until 1949, when they immigrated to Argentina. In 1957, permanently separated but not divorced from Emilie, Schindler returned alone to Germany. Schindler died in Germany, penniless and almost unknown, in October 1974.

Schindler tried to move to the United States but was denied.

When the war was over, a penniless Schindler moved to West Germany where he received financial assistance from Jewish relief organizations. However, he soon felt unsafe after receiving threats from former Nazi officers. He tried to move to the United States, but because he had been part of the Nazi Party, he was denied entry.

After obtaining partial reimbursement for his expenses he incurred during the war, Schindler was able to emigrate to Buenos Aires, Argentina, taking his wife, mistress and a dozen of his Jewish workers (aka “Schindler Jews”). There, he set up a new life, where he took up farming for a time.

However, Schindler’s financial woes continued, and he went bankrupt in 1958. He left his wife Emilie in Argentina to find fortune back in Germany, but despite his efforts, his various businesses repeatedly failed.

Again, he had to depend on the charity of the Schindler Jews, many of whom he was still in contact with, to support his well being.

In 1963, the same year he declared bankruptcy, he was honored by the State of Israel as Righteous Among the Nations, an award for non-Jews who helped save Jews during the Holocaust.

A year later, he had a heart attack and spent time recuperating in a hospital.

After his death, he requested to be buried in Jerusalem.

On October 9, 1974 Schindler died of liver failure at the age of 66. Before his death, he requested to be buried in Jerusalem. “My children are here…” he said of why he wanted his final resting place to be there. Amid hundreds of tearful Schindler Jews, his wish was granted and he was buried on Mount Zion in Jerusalem.

Trigonometric Unit Circle and Graph Reference

Unit circle

The unit circle is a commonly used tool in trigonometry because it helps the user to remember the special angles and their trigonometric functions.

The unit circle is a circle drawn with its center at the origin of a graph(0,0), and with a radius of 1.

All angles are measured starting from the x-axis in quadrant one and may go around the unit circle any number of degrees.

Points on the outside of the circle that are in line with the terminal (ending) sides of the angles are very useful to know, as they give the trigonometric function of the angle through their coordinants. The format is (cos, sin).

Note that in trigonometry, an angle can be of any size, positive or negative. An angle larger than 360º means that you have gone round the circle more than once.

Against the Ice (2022)

Against the Ice is a 2022 historical survival film directed by Peter Flinth and written by Nikolaj Coster-Waldau and Joe Derrick, based on the true story recounted in Two Against the Ice by Ejnar Mikkelsen.

It stars Coster-Waldau, Joe Cole, Charles Dance, and Heida Reed.

The film was shot in Iceland and Greenland.

Against the Ice premiered at the 72nd Berlin International Film Festival on February 15, 2022.

It was released on Netflix on March 2, 2022, and received mixed reviews from critics.

In 1909, Danish explorer and Captain Ejnar Mikkelsen organizes an expedition in Shannon Island, East Greenland, to recover the records of the missing members of the ill-fated Denmark expedition.

After his first try is unsuccessful, the only volunteer to accompany him on his second attempt is engineer Iver Iversen while the rest of the crew stays behind.

Mikkelsen and Iversen lose two of their sled dogs in their first few days.

Later, they fight and kill a polar bear.

One day, the explorers find records disproving the existence of the Peary Channel, leaving the United States with no claim in the Arctic.

After a few months, Mikkelsen and Iversen return to Shannon Island and learn the rest of the crew have returned home, leaving them stranded on the island.

The two men stay in a cottage for two winters, almost losing their sanity in the process, before being rescued in 1912.

An epilogue reveals Mikkelsen married Naja Holm a year later while Iversen never set foot in the Arctic again.

What is against the ice based on?

Against The Ice is based on the events of Ejnar Mikkelsen’s 1909 expedition to North Greenland. Here’s how much of the film happened in real life. Netflix’s latest survival film Against The Ice is based on the events of the 1909 Alabama expedition, prompting audiences to ask how much of it really happened.

Where was against the ice filmed?

Iceland and Greenland whilst using minimal green screens.

Black Book ( Zwartboek )

Rachel joins the Dutch resistance after her farmhouse is destroyed. While she tries to flee to South Netherlands, along with a local man, Rob, she finds herself entangled in the web of betrayal.

Release date: 14 September 2006 (Netherlands)
Director: Paul Verhoeven
Dutch: Zwartboek
Music by: Anne Dudley
Box office: $27 million
Distributed by: Warner Bros. Pictures, Palisades Tartan

Black Book (Dutch: Zwartboek) is a 2006 war drama thriller film co-written and directed by Paul Verhoeven and starring Carice van Houten, Sebastian Koch, Thom Hoffman, and Halina Reijn.

The film, credited as based on several true events and characters, is about a young Jewish woman in the Netherlands who becomes a spy for the resistance during World War II after tragedy befalls her in an encounter with the Nazis.

The film had its world premiere on 1 September 2006 at the Venice Film Festival and its public release on 14 September 2006 in the Netherlands.

It is the first film that Verhoeven made in the Netherlands since The Fourth Man, made in 1983 before he moved to the United States.

The press in the Netherlands was positive; with three Golden Calves, Black Book won the most awards at the Netherlands Film Festival in 2006.

The international press responded positively, as well, especially to the performance of Van Houten.

It was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Film Not in the English Language, and was the Dutch submission for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 2007, but was not nominated.

It was three times more expensive than any Dutch film ever made, and also the Netherlands’ most commercially successful, with the country’s highest box-office gross of 2006. In 2008, the Dutch public voted it the best Dutch film ever.

Writing: Verhoeven has emphasised that the story does not show an obvious moral contrast between characters, for a theme of moral relativism:

In this movie, everything has a shade of grey. There are no people who are completely good and no people who are completely bad. It’s like life. It’s not very Hollywoodian.

Black Book is not a true story, unlike Soldier of Orange, but Verhoeven states that many of the events are true.

As in the film, the German headquarters were in the Hague.

In 1944 many Jews that tried to cross to liberated parts of the southern Netherlands were entrapped by Dutch policemen. As in the film, crossing attempts took place in the Biesbosch.

Events are related to the life of Verhoeven, who was born in 1938 and grew up in the Hague during the Second World War.

The execution of Müntze by German firing squad after the war had ended echoes the notorious May 1945 German deserter execution incident.

Financing: Because of financing problems, the filming did not start as planned in 2004 but was delayed until August 2005.

In this month it was announced that Black Book received about €2,000,000 support from the Netherlands Public Broadcasting, the CoBO Fund, and the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science.

There were also several foreign investors, which made the film a Belgian, British, and German coproduction. With a final estimated budget of €18,000,000 the film was the most expensive Dutch film ever, at the time of its release.

Commercial success:
Before the film was released, the rights for distribution had been sold to distributors in 52 countries.

According to the production company Fu Works these sales made the film Black Book the most commercially successful Dutch film production ever, at the time of its release.

Black Book received a Golden Film (100,000 tickets sold) within a record breaking three days and a Platinum Film (400,000 tickets sold) within three weeks after the Dutch premiere. The film had its millionth visitor on 12 January 2007.

Black Book had the highest box office gross for a Dutch film in 2006, coming third overall in 2006 in the Netherlands, after the American films Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest and The Da Vinci Code.

As of 31 December 2006, the box office gross in the Netherlands was €6,953,118.

Children of Heaven

Siblings Ali and Zahra make an intricate arrangement to conceal the loss of Zahra’s pair of shoes. However, when it becomes difficult to do so, Ali decides to participate in a race to win new shoes.

Initial release: February 1997

Director: Majid Majidi

Language: Persian

Music by: Keivan Jahanshahi

Distributed by: Miramax

Nominations: Academy Award for Best International Feature FilmSilver Condor Award for Best Fictional FilmAFI Grand Jury Prize

What happens in the end of Children of Heaven?

Finally he wins the race at the end of the movie, and instead of being excited, he feels terrible that he didn’t come in third and therefore win the sneakers for Zahra. I love that both children have such strong personalities, especially Zahra.

Is Children of Heaven a good movie?
“Children of Heaven” is very nearly a perfect movie for children, and of course that means adults will like it, too. It lacks the cynicism and smart-mouth attitudes of so much American entertainment for kids and glows with a kind of good-hearted purity.

What does the shoe symbolize in Children of Heaven?
As a result, the pair of pink shoes becomes the symbol because the shoes represent both the loss and demand. These pink shoes occupy the minds of Ali and Zahra because the loss can upset the parents, but the children are able to cooperate to find a lot of solutions how to compensate the loss.

What language do the actors speak in Children of Heaven?
It deals with a brother and sister and their adventures over a lost pair of shoes. It was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1998.

Children of Heaven
Release date- February 1997 (Fajr Film Festival)
Running time- 89 minutes
Country- Iran
Language- Farsi

What is the theme of the movie Children of Heaven?

From a modern context, the film relays a theme of innocence and humanity, something which is often tarnished by today’s horrific conflicts. Children of Heaven also creates a window into another culture, exposing audiences to societal differences.

Who wrote Children of Heaven?

Majid Majidi
Children of Heaven / Screenplay

Majid Majidi is an Iranian film director, producer, and screenwriter, who started his film career as an actor. In his films, Majidi has touched on many themes and genres and has won numerous international awards.

Similar to this -Bumm Bumm Bole

Pinu, a young boy, misplaces his sister, Rimzim’s shoes at a vegetable shop. Fearing his parents, Pinu asks Rimzim to use his pair of shoes until their father can afford new ones.

Release date: 14 May 2010 (India)
Director: Priyadarshan
Adapted from: Children of Heaven
Language: Hindi
Distributed by: Percept Picture Company, Orion Pictures

Evacuation of 170,000 Indians from Kuwait

Type: Emergency evacuation
Location: Kuwait
Planned by: Ministry of External Affairs
Objective: Humanitarian relief
Date: 13 August 1990 – 20 October 1990
Executed by: Air India, Indian Airlines, Indian Air Force
Outcome: More than 170,000 Indian citizens evacuated.

The 1990 airlift of Indians from Kuwait was carried out from August 13, 1990 to October 20, 1990 after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.

Air India helped evacuate 170,000 people by civil airline.

The operation was carried out before the Persian Gulf War in 1990 to evacuate Indian expatriates from Kuwait.

Foreign Minister I.K. Gujral was instrumental in getting Iraq to co-operate on these efforts.

Following this operation Air India, the flag carrier Indian airline entered the Guinness Book of World Records for the most people evacuated by a civil airliner.

Mathunny Mathews, Harbajan Singh Vedi, Abey Varicad, V.K. Warrier, Ali Hussain and few others based in Kuwait helped immensely in the evacuation efforts of fellow Indians.


The invasion of Kuwait started on August 2, 1990, and within two days of combat, most of the Kuwaiti armed forces were either overrun by the Iraqi Republican Guard or fell back to Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. The Emirate of Kuwait was annexed, and Saddam Hussein announced a few days later that it was the 19th province of Iraq. More than 170,000 Indians were stranded on Kuwaiti soil.

Initial efforts were made by the government of India to evacuate nationals by military aircraft.

However, due to difficulties in air-space clearances the switch was made to civilian aircraft. India had initially requested permission to evacuate its citizens by Air India but the request was not approved by the UN and the government of Kuwait in exile.

India was required to use planes supplied to them under the UN banner.

Complications arose due to the significantly higher number of nationals requiring evacuation, a lack of travel documents and poor communications.

The airlift was completed before the start of Operation Desert Storm.

About 170,000 people were evacuated (airlifted) from Amman, Jordan, to Bombay – a distance of 4,117 km (2558 mi) – by Air India, operating 488 flights in association with Indian Airlines, from August 18, 1990 to October 20, 1990 – lasting 63 days.

Buses were also used after winning Baghdad’s approval to ferry Indians through Basra and Baghdad to Amman in Jordan.

Movie based on this airlift:
The event was the basis for the 2016 film Airlift starring Akshay Kumar, who played a character inspired by the works of Mathunny Mathews and Harbajan Singh Vedi.

Albert Einstein and Prime Minister Nehru : A Letter to Nehru

Albert Einstein and Prime Minister Nehru enjoy a visit together. From left, Albert Einstein, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. From album “Visit of his Excellency Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru Prime Minister of India to the United States of America”
November 5, 1949

Did Einstein met Nehru?
After India got independence in 1947, the then Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru was called to the Princeton University in the US where he met Albert Einstein. This was in 1949. During the meeting, other members of the Nehru family were also present.

Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, of India, says goodbye to Dr. Albert Einstein at his home in Princeton. L-R: Mrs. Indira Gandhi, Nehru’s daughter; Dr. Einstein; Prime Minister Nehru; and Madam Vijaya Lakshi Pandit, Indian Ambassador to the United States. Nov. 5, 1949.

Einstein’s letter to Nehru:

On 13 June 1947, Einstein wrote a four-page letter to Nehru, first praising India for having taken up the cause of abolishing untouchability, and saying the Jewish people were also victims of discrimination and persecution, with a pariah status.

Appealing to Nehru, Einstein praised him as a “consistent champion of the forces of political and economic enlightenment”, and exhorted him to rule in favour of “the rights of an ancient people whose roots are in the East”. Einstein pleaded for “justice and equity”, adding that “long before the emergence of Hitler, I made the cause of Zionism mine, because through it, I saw a means of correcting a flagrant wrong”.

Einstein went on to say that “the Jewish people alone has for centuries been in the anomalous position of being victimised and hounded as a people, though bereft of all the rights and protections which even the smallest people normally has… Zionism offered the means of ending this discrimination…through the return to the land to which they were bound by close historic ties… Jews sought to abolish their pariah status among peoples”.

To drive home his argument, Einstein wrote in his letter: “The advent of Hitler underscored with a savage logic all the disastrous implications contained in the abnormal situation in which Jews found themselves. Millions of Jews perished… because there was no spot on the globe where they could find sanctuary… The Jewish survivors demand the right to dwell amid brothers, on the ancient soil of their fathers.”

Recognising Nehru’s dilemma, Einstein went on to highlight: “Though the Arab of Palestine has benefitted… economically, he wants exclusive national sovereignty, such as is enjoyed by the Arabs of Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Lebanon and Syria [sic]. It is a legitimate and natural desire, and justice would seem to call for its satisfaction.” This satisfaction would be in the form of a Palestinian State.

Post-World War 1, the Allies gave the Arabs 99% of Arab lands liberated from the Ottoman Empire, to meet Arab national aspirations, and five independent Arab states were created. One per cent was reserved for the Jews “in the land of their origin”, for the establishment of Israel.

In Einstein’s words: “In the august scale of justice, which weighs need against need, there is no doubt as to whose is more heavy.”

According to Einstein, the Balfour Declaration of 1917, which promised a homeland for the Jewish people, redressed the balance of justice and history.

Einstein’s final appeal to Nehru was to brush aside “the rivalries of power politics and the egotism of petty nationalist appetites” and to support “the glorious renaissance which has begun in Palestine”.

Nehru’s response:
Nehru’s response to Einstein’s letter reflected his deep moral dilemma. Nehru did not hedge this, and acknowledged that India’s policy was dictated by realpolitik, despite moral posturing.

Nehru wrote that national leaders, “unfortunately”, had to pursue “policies… [that were] essentially selfish policies. Each country thinks of its own interest first… If it so happens that some international policy fits in with the national policy of the country, then that nation uses brave language about international betterment. But as soon as that international policy seems to run counter to national interests or selfishness, then a host of reasons are found not to follow that international policy.

This was Nehru’s explanation for India voting against the partition of Palestine, and the creation of a Jewish State.

The compelling reasons were India’s own partition, India’s large Muslim population which, like other Muslims elsewhere, was instinctively pro-Palestinian, seeing the issue as an Islamic cause, and India’s need for support from inter alia Arab countries, in the impending 1948 war over Kashmir with Pakistan.

Nehru went on to argue in his letter: “I confess that while I have a very great deal of sympathy for the Jews, I feel sympathy for the Arabs also

I know that the Jews have done a wonderful piece of work in Palestine and have raised the standards of the people there, but one question troubles me. After all these remarkable achievements, why have they failed to gain the goodwill of the Arabs? Why do they want to compel the Arabs to submit against their will to certain demands [i.e., partition and Jewish statehood]”?

Eventually, India officially recognised the State of Israel on 17 September 1950. At the time, Nehru said: “We would have [recognised Israel] long ago, because Israel is a fact. We refrained because of our desire not to offend the sentiments of our friends in the Arab countries.”

Though Einstein could not convince Nehru immediately, despite the latter’s deep admiration for the great scientist, his letters did play a crucial role in convincing Nehru.

Some interesting videos:

Zionism : a movement for (originally) the re-establishment and (now) the development and protection of a Jewish nation in what is now Israel. It was established as a political organization in 1897 under Theodor Herzl, and was later led by Chaim Weizmann.

Albert Einstein, seen here with his wife Elsa Einstein and Zionist leaders, including future President of Israel Chaim Weizmann, his wife Dr. Vera Weizmann, Menahem Ussishkin, and Ben-Zion Mossinson on arrival in New York City in 1921

PALMA (Пальма) (2021)

A Dog Named Palma (Russian: Пальма) is a 2021 Russian children’s drama film film directed by Aleksandr Domogarov Jr., based on real events that took place in 1974-1976 at the Moscow’s Vnukovo International Airport.

In 1977 Soviet Union, the owner of a German Shepherd dog Palma flies abroad. Palma hides at the airport and waits for its owner. She meets a boy named Kolya Lazarev, who has lost his mother, and they become best friends.

In 1976 the Komsomol Truth published an article about this called Waiting for Two Years, written by Yuri Rost, in 1988, based on the article, a feature film was made Tethered to the Runway (ru), directed by Vladimir Khmelnitsky.

More than 300 children passed the casting for the role of the boy Kolya Lazarev, before the director approved Leonid Basov. For him, this is his film debut.

Principal photography of the film took place in one of the airports near Moscow and the Belarusian Brest. The local airport, which retained its Soviet interiors and was not very busy, was best suited to reproduce the atmosphere of the 70s. About 500 residents of Brest were used as extras for the crowd scenes.

The Russian premiere of the film took place on March 18, 2021 by Central Partnership.

Is Palma movie real?
The film is inspired by an incredible true story of a shepherd dog named Palma who was inadvertently left in the airport by her owner. She befriends nine-year old Nicholas whose mother dies leaving him with a father he barely knows – a pilot who finds the dog at the airport.

A true story of unconditional love. Love that is pure and natural.